The promises, challenges and pathways to room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries
Lei Wang, Tao Wang, Lele Peng, Yiliu Wang, Meng Zhang, Jian Zhou, Maoxin Chen, Jinhui Cao, Huilong Fei, Xidong Duan, Jian Zhu, Xiangfeng Duan
Natl. Sci. Rev. (2021)
Room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries (RT-Na-S batteries) are attractive for large-scale energy storage applications owing to their high storage capacity as well as the rich abundance and low cost of the materials. Unfortunately, their practical application is hampered by severe challenges, such as low conductivity of sulfur and its reduced products, volume expansion, polysulfides shuttling effect and Na dendrite formation, which can lead to rapid capacity fading. The review discusses the Na-S-energy-storage chemistry, highlighting its promise, key challenges and potential strategies for large-scale energy storage systems. Specifically, we review the electrochemical principles and the current technical challenges of RT-Na-S batteries, and discuss the strategies to address these obstacles. In particular, we give a comprehensive review of recent progresses in cathodes, anodes, electrolytes, separators, and cell configurations, and provide a forward-looking perspective on strategies toward robust high energy density RT-Na-S batteries.